Uhlelo Lokulashwa Kwamanzi Lokupholisa Umbhoshongo

Ezinkampanini zezimboni ezisebenzisa umbhoshongo wokupholisa indawo yayo, uhlobo oluthile lokupholisa amanzi embhoshongweni wokupholisa amanzi kuyadingeka ukuze kuqinisekiswe inqubo esebenza kahle nempilo yokusebenza isikhathi eside. Uma amanzi apholisa umbhoshongo eshiywa engalashwa, ukukhula okungokwemvelo, ukungcola, ukukala nokugqwala kunganciphisa ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo, kubangele isikhathi sokuphumula kwezitshalo, futhi kudinge ukufakwa kwemishini ebizayo phansi komgwaqo.

Uhlelo lokunakekelwa kwamanzi lombhoshongo wokupholisa luyilungiselelo lobuchwepheshe obususa ukungcola okulimazayo emanzini akho okupholisa wombhoshongo, amanzi ajikelezayo, kanye / noma ukuqhuma phansi. Ukuhlelwa okuthile kohlelo lwakho kuzoya ngezinto eziningi, kufaka phakathi:

uhlobo lombhoshongo wokupholisa (ukujikeleza okuvulekile, ukudlula kanye, noma iluphu evaliwe)
ikhwalithi yamanzi okuphakelayo
izidingo ezinconywayo zokwenziwa kombhoshongo wokupholisa nemishini
amakhemikhali / ukwakheka kwamanzi ajikelezayo
izidingo zokulawula ukukhishwa
noma ngabe ukuqhuma phansi kuzokwelashwa ukuze kusetshenziswe kabusha embhoshongweni wokupholisa
uhlobo lokushisa
umjikelezo wokuhlushwa

Njengoba kushiwo ngenhla, izingxenye eziqondile zohlelo lokupholisa amanzi embhoshongweni wokupholisa zincike kwikhwalithi yokuphakelwa kwamanzi kanye namakhemikhali wamanzi ajikelezayo maqondana nekhwalithi yamanzi adingekayo kulombhoshongo othize wokupholisa nemishini ehlobene nayo (ngokusho kwezincomo zomkhiqizi), kepha ngokujwayelekile, uhlelo oluyisisekelo lokuphilisa amanzi lombhoshongo wokupholisa luhlanganisa uhlobo oluthile lwe:

ukucaciseleka
ukuhlunga kanye / noma i-ultra-filtration
ion exchange / ukuthambisa
okuphakelayo kwamakhemikhali
ukuqapha okuzenzakalelayo

Ngokuya ngokungcola okukhona emanzini, noma iyiphi inhlanganisela yalezi zindlela zokwelapha ingahle ihambisane kahle nesikhungo futhi yenze uhlelo lokwelashwa, ngakho-ke kubalulekile ukubonisana nochwepheshe wokwelashwa kwamanzi ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi kucatshangelwa uhlelo olufanele lombhoshongo othize. Ngokuya ngezidingo zombhoshongo wokupholisa nenqubo, lezi zinto ezijwayelekile zivame ukwanela. Kodwa-ke, uma umbhoshongo udinga uhlelo olunikeza ukwenza ngokwezifiso okuthe xaxa, kungahle kube nezici ezithile noma ubuchwepheshe ozodinga ukungeza kubo.

Isistimu yokupholisa amanzi embhoshongweni wokupholisa ingahle yenziwe ubuchwepheshe obudingekayo ukulawula izinga le:

i-alkalinity: izocacisa amandla we-calcium carbonate scale
ama-chloride: kungonakalisa insimbi; amazinga ahlukene azobekezelelwa ngokususelwa ezintweni zokwakha umbhoshongo wokupholisa nemishini
ubulukhuni: kunomthelela esikalini embhoshongweni wokupholisa nakubashintshisi bokushisa
insimbi: lapho ihlanganiswa ne-phosphate, i-iron ingakwazi ukwenza imishini engcolile
Okuphilayo: kukhuthaza ukukhula kwama-microorganism, okungaholela ekungcolisweni, ukugqwala nezinye izindaba zesistimu
i-silica: yaziwa ngokubangela amadiphozithi alukhuni 硬 水垢
ama-sulphate: njengama-chloride, angonakalisa kakhulu izinsimbi
ukudla okuqinile okuphelele (TDS): bamba iqhaza ekukhuleni, ekuphepheni, nase / noma ekugqolweni
inani eliphelele lokuqina okumisiwe (TSS): ukungcoliswa okungancibiliki okungadala ukukala, ama-bio-films, kanye / noma ukubola

Izinqubo ezithile zokwelashwa ziyehluka ngokuya ngezidingo zombhoshongo wokupholisa nekhwalithi / amakhemikhali wokuphakelwa nokusakazwa kwamanzi, kepha uhlelo olujwayelekile lokupholisa amanzi embhoshongweni wokupholisa luvame ukufaka lezi zinyathelo ezilandelayo:

Ukufakwa kwamanzi okuphuza kombhoshongo opholile 

Amanzi okugcoba, noma amanzi afaka amanzi aphuma futhi aphuma futhi aphuma futhi avuza avela embhoshongweni wokupholisa, aqala ukudonswa emthonjeni wawo, okungaba amanzi aluhlaza, amanzi asedolobheni, ukungcola okuphethwe yidolobha, amanzi angcolile asesitshalweni asetshenziswe kabusha, amanzi emithombo, noma yikuphi omunye umthombo wamanzi angaphezulu.

Ngokuya ngekhwalithi yala manzi, ungahle udinge ukwelashwa lapha. Uma uhlelo lokuhlanza amanzi ludingeka kule ngxenye yenqubo yokupholisa amanzi embhoshongweni opholile, imvamisa ubuchwepheshe obususa ubulukhuni ne-silica noma buqinise futhi buqondise i-PH.

Kuleli qophelo lenqubo, ukwelashwa okufanele kukhulisa imijikelezo yokuhwamuka kombhoshongo futhi kunciphise izinga lokopha kwamanzi ukukhipha okungaphezu kwalokho okungenziwa ngamakhemikhali kuphela.

Ukuhlunga kanye ne-ultra-ukuhlunga

Isinyathelo esilandelayo imvamisa sisebenzisa amanzi okupholisa wombhoshongo ngohlobo oluthile lokuhlunga ukususa noma yiziphi izinhlayiya ezimisiwe ezinjenge-sediment, turbidity, nezinhlobo ezithile zezinto eziphilayo. Kuvame ukuba lusizo ukukwenza lokhu kusenesikhathi kunqubo, njengoba ukususwa kokuqina okumisiwe umfula kungasiza ukuvikela ulwelwesi nezinhlaka zokushintshaniswa kwe-ion ekungcolisweni ngokuhamba kwesikhathi enkambisweni yokwelashwa kwangaphambili. Ngokuya ngohlobo lokuhlunga olusetshenzisiwe, izinhlayiya ezimisiwe zingasuswa ziye ngaphansi ngaphansi kwemicron eyodwa.

Ion exchange / ukuthambisa amanzi

Uma kunobulukhuni obuphakeme emanzini omthombo / wezimonyo, kungahle kube nokwelashwa kokususwa kobulukhuni. Esikhundleni se-lime, i-resin yokuthambisa ingasetshenziswa; inqubo yokushintshanisa i-asidi enamandla, lapho i-resin ikhokhiswa khona nge-sodium ion, futhi njengoba ubunzima bufika, bunokuhlangana okuphezulu kwe-calcium, i-magnesium, ne-iron ngakho-ke izobamba lelo molekyuli bese ikhipha i-molecule ye-sodium emanzini. Lokhu kungcola, uma kukhona, kungenza ukuthi kubangelwe isikali semali nokugqwala.

Ukwengeza ngamakhemikhali

Kuleli qophelo kunqubo, kukhona ukusetshenziswa kwamakhemikhali, njenge:

corrosion inhibitors (isb. ama-bicarbonate) ukunciphisa i-asidi nokuvikela izingxenye zensimbi
i-algaecides ne-biocide (isb. i-bromine) ukunciphisa ukukhula kwama-microbes nama-biofilms
isikali inhibitors (isb. i-phosphoric acid) ukuvikela ukungcola ekwenziweni kwamadiphozithi esikalini

Ukwelashwa okuphelele ngaphambi kwalesi sigaba kungasiza ekwehliseni inani lamakhemikhali adingekayo ukuphatha amanzi ngalesi sikhathi senqubo, okulungile uma ubheka ukwelashwa kwamakhemikhali amaningi kungabiza.

Ukuhlunga okusakazwa eceleni

Uma amanzi embhoshongweni opholile ezosatshalaliswa kabusha kulo lonke uhlelo, iyunithi yokuhlunga eseceleni komsele izosiza ekususeni noma yikuphi ukungcola okuyinkinga okungene ngokungcoliswa ukukhukhuleka, ukuvuza, njll. Umthetho omuhle wesithupha ukuthi, uma uhlelo lokupholisa amanzi lombhoshongo opholile ludinga ukuhlunga okuseceleni, cishe u-10% wamanzi ajikelezayo azokuhlunga. Imvamisa iqukethe iyunithi enhle yokuhlunga i-multimedia.

Shaya-ukwelashwa phansi

Ingxenye yokugcina yokwelashwa edingekayo yokupholisa amanzi embhoshongo ukuqhuma noma ukuphuma kwegazi kusuka embhoshongweni.

Ngokuya ngamanzi isitshalo sokupholisa esidinga ukusabalalisa amandla afanele okupholisa, izitshalo zizokhetha ukuphinda zisebenzise futhi ziphinde zithole amanzi ngohlobo oluthile lokwelashwa okuthunyelwe ngendlela ye-reverse osmosis noma i-ion exchange, ikakhulukazi ezindaweni lapho amanzi angahle entuleke khona. Lokhu kuvumela ukungcola kuketshezi nokuqinile ukuthi kugxilwe futhi kususwe ngenkathi amanzi ahlanziwe engabuyiselwa embhoshongweni aphinde asetshenziswe.

Uma amanzi avela ekushayweni phansi efuna ukukhishwa, noma yikuphi ukukhishwa okwenziwa uhlelo kuzodinga ukuhlangabezana nazo zonke izidingo zokulawula. Kwezinye izindawo lapho amanzi ayindlala khona, kungaba nemali enkulu yokuxhuma indle, futhi izinhlelo zamaminerali zingaba yisixazululo esingabizi kakhulu lapha, njengoba zingasiza ukunciphisa izindleko zokuxhuma kulayini wamanzi nezindle. Futhi, ukukhishwa kombhoshongo opholayo kufanele kuhlangane nemithetho kamasipala yendawo yokuthuthwa kwendle uma ukungcola kubuyiselwa emvelweni noma emisebenzini yokwelashwa ephethwe ngumphakathi.

Imibhoshongo yokupholisa yezimboni abathengi abakhulu bamanzi. Ngokushoda kwamanzi ezingxenyeni ezithile zomhlaba, ukwelashwa okuphumelelayo okuvumela ukusetshenziswa kwamanzi okwandisiwe kuyisici sokushayela esinomthelela lapho futhi kuphi imibhoshongo yokupholisa. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izidingo eziqinile zokukhipha amanzi zikahulumeni, zombuso nezomasipala zizoshukumisa izindlela ezintsha ezihlobene nokwelashwa kwamanzi embhoshongweni opholile.

Izinhlelo zokupholisa ezivaliwe ezinciphisa ukungena kwamanzi ngaphezulu kwe-90.0% ngokuqhathanisa nezinhlelo ezikhona zokupholisa ezimbonini zamakhemikhali nasezimbonini zamandla ezishisayo. Ngakho-ke kuholele ekufuneni okwandayo kwezinhlelo zesifunda ezivaliwe zezinqubo zokupholisa emhlabeni jikelele.


Isikhathi Iposi: Nov-05-2020